AnyCast is a network addressing and routing method introduced with IPv6, which makes it possible to address a single computer from a group of computer via an address. The closest server answers and receives the package with multiple IP addresses.
Brandjacking is the taking over of a company’s online identity in order to exploit or damage its brand value. The term combines the terms „branding“ and „hijacking“ and has been used since at least 2007.
The abbreviation ccTLD stands for „country code top level domain“ and denotes a country-specific top level domain. Each country is assigned to exactly one two-letter code (ALPHA-2) according to ISO 3166. Examples for the more than 200 ccTLDs are .de for Germany, .uk for
United Kingdom and .us for the United States of America.
The “Trademark Claims” service of the TMCH means that during the 90 day “Trademark Claims” period a notification is sent to the registrant and the trademark holder whenever an attempt is made to register a domain, which is listed in the TMCH database as validated mark.
Counterfeiting is a term derived from the English verb „to counterfeit“, which describes the imitation of branded products. Counterfeit products are a risk for the brand’s reputation and can lead to declining sales and endangering customers.
The term „Cybersquatting“ is derived from the English „squatter“ and is used synonymously for domain squatting. It refers to the registration of terms as domain names which are not entitled to the registrant. The registration of brand names is also called “brandjacking”.
The term data center (German: Rechenzentrum) refers to the premises in which central computing technology of one or more companies is located, as well as the organization itself that takes care of these computers.
The domain name system (DNS) combines domain names and IP addresses by referencing and resolving the complete names, and thus also the TLDs. By using a domain name instead of the IP address, the DNS allows the Internet user a simplified handling.
Domain Name Systems Security Extensions (DNSSEC) are Internet standards that extend the Domain Name System (DNS) with regard to security mechanisms in order to guarantee the authenticity and integrity of the data. Thanks to DNSSEC, a DNS user can verify that the received zone data and the data authorized by the creator of the zone are identical. DNS data is not encrypted.
An internet address or web address such as brandshelter.com is called a domain. It is part of the URL of a website (e.g. http://www.brandshelter.com) and identifies computers on the Internet.
Domain transfer means the transfer of a domain from one registrar to another. The process is started by the future registrar. In order to make the process simpler and safer, ICANN laid down binding rules for its accredited registrars in 2004.
In the upcoming years ICANN is expected to announce another round of applications for new Top Level Domains. This would offer companies and organizations the opportunity to apply for their own company and/or brand name as a new Top Level Domain. BrandShelter supports you in every application phase at ICANN and in the implementation of the registry functions.
DPML Plus is a blocking service of the Donuts Registry to block domain name registrations, that are trademarks in Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH). It replaces the DPML service of Donuts Registry.
“Dropped domains” are deleted domains, that have not been renewed by a private person, a company or an organization after the expiry of the registration period and have therefore been released for registration.
While black market describes illegal trade, the so-called grey market refers to trade in goods via distribution channels, that are not subject to direct legal control and are therefore located in a “juridical grey zone”.
A gTLD is a generic Top Level Domain like .com, .xyz or .club
The IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) is a division of ICANN that assigns numbers and names on the Internet. Being the operater of the Domain Name System (DNS) and the responsible organization for the allocation of IP addresses, it is one of the oldest institutions of the Internet.
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a non-profit organization and the coordination center for the allocation of names and addresses on the Internet. Being the highest Internet authority, it manages the Domain Name System and the allocation of IP addresses and ensures that IP addresses are assigned only once.
IDN is the abbreviation for Internationalized Domain Name, which is a domain name that can also contain so-called non-ASCII characters, meaning umlauts, diacritical characters or letters from non-Latin alphabets. The use of these characters was enabled subsequently by the internet standard Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) since they were originally not provided by the Domain Name System (DNS).
Internet piracy is the unauthorized making available, duplicating or downloading of films, music and software protected by copyright.
The Landrush phase is a limited period in time phase during the introduction process of a new Top Level Domain and follows the Sunrise phase. In the Landrush phase, interested parties can apply for registration of a particular domain name at the respective registry. These domain names include interesting domains for which there is no trademark protection claim. The registry determines which application documents must be submitted.
The registration authorities for Top Level Domains reserve the right to make the domain registration subject to certain conditions.For the registration of domain names for which a local contact is required within its licensing guidelines, BrandShelter offers so called “local presence services”. We advise each customer individually whether a so-called “trustee” is required and assume the handling of the trust agreement with our partner on site.Read more about this: www.brandshelter.com/de/domain-registrierung
“Monitoring” means all types of direct systematic recording, measuring, observation or monitoring of an operation or process by means of technical aids. Among other things, BrandShelters’s monitoring services inform when newly registered trademarks correspond exactly to your brand and protect your brand against cybersquatting.
A name server resolves the names of computers or services into computer processable data and answers queries to the domain name space, based on a DNS database. They are usually part of the DNS.
A namespace is an organizing principle of informatics to avoid conflicts with the allocation of names. The individual elements of a domain name, that are seperated by dots, point to different hierachically ordered namespaces of the DNS. The first namespace in the hierarchry is the top level domain, the second is the second level domain, the third is the third level domain. This principle allows the registration of several distinguishable domains for the term BrandShelter such as brandshelter.com and brandshelter.co .uk.
New generic top-level domains (new gTLDs) are domain extensions for which public and private organizations in 2012 applied at the highest Internet authority ICANN. The new gTLDs can consist of a letter combination of three up fto 63 characters. Among the new gTLDs are pure gTLDs such as .xyz or .website, geo TLDs such as .berlin or .london and brand TLDs such as .bmw and .barclays.
The term “phising” decribes the attempt to gain access to an internet user’s persnal data via fake websites or e-mails. With the “fished” data, the thief can aquire the identity of the internet user and, for example, gain access to his bank account.
A domain pre-order is the reservation of a domain under a new top-level domain that has not yet been introduced by a registrar. When introducing the top-level domain, the registrar tries to register the desired domain name. If this should fail, the customer will be reimbursed for the registration costs, which are usually paid in advance.
A registrant is the person or organization that acquires a domain for own purposes or on behalf of another domain owner by registering it with a registrar for a certain period of time.
A registrar executes the registration of domains as a company. It is the link between the registry that offers the domains for sale and the registrant who acquires the domain by registering it for a certain period of time at the registrar.
A registrar lock is a code, which is assigned by the registrar to a domain name in order to exclude changes of the domain name. If the registry lock is set, the domain can neither be transferred nor deleted. Furthermore, no modifications can be made to the domain contact data. The renewal of a domain name is still possible.
Domain registration is the puchase of a domain for a limited period of time as well as its technical realization by a registrar, domain provider or reseller.
A registry is an organization for the allocation of domains within the name space of one or more top level domains domains according to their own allocation rules. A registry also administers a part of the resources needed for the technical operation of the Domain Name System (DNS).
A root-server is a name server for name resolution at the root of the domain name system (DNS). The zone of the root servers includes names and IP addresses of all name servers of all top level domains (TLDs). Root server are operated by various institutions and coordinated by ICANN.
The SAN function enables a SSL secured communication for server with multiple domain names and host names – within a single SSL certificate. For SSL certificates that support this feature additional domain names can be deposited in the “Subject Alternative Name (SAN)” field, which can be protected with a single certificate.Trademark owners benefit from the “Subject Alternative Name (SAN)” functionality when they need to operate and manage many websites.
The second level of a domain name (second level domain, abbreviated SLD) is the penultimate section of a domain. Being the second character group it can be found right of the dot. Brandshelter is the SLD in the domain name brandshelter.com.
A so-called snapback or backorder service helps to monitor already registered domains and to register them immediately after their deletion by the previous owner.
SSL, abbreviation for Secure Socket Layer, is a security technology for the establishment of an encrypted connection between a server and a client, which guarantees a safe transmission between a domain on a web server and the visitor of a website.
A subdomain is hierarchically subordinated to another domain. In general, subdomains are mostly domains of the third or lower level, so brandshelter.co.uk is a third level subdomain that is located below .co (second level domain) and .uk (top level domain).
The Sunrise phase defines the phase in the run-up to a Top Level Domain introduction, which allows only trademark holders and registered trademarks to register their protected term as domains. The Sunrise period is intended to prevent individuals from registering such terms. Hereafter, these domains are then generally available.
The domain of the third level (third level domain), also called subdomain, identifies the third character group (brandshelter) righthand in the domain name (brandshelter.co.uk).
Data centers guarantee minimum availability, that means, it indicates the probability that a system will be functional, for example, up to 99.9 percent in regard to a specified period of time. For classification purposes, the US American Uptime Insitute has defined a four-level „tier“ classification in the TIA-942 (Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers), whereby the English term „tier“ stands for rank or layer. TIER 3 is therefore a benchmark for the reliability of data center and means that redundant components are used, that the server is available in duplicate, and that multiple active and passive supply channels are available. The makes the system fault tolerant and maintenance is also possible during operation.
The introduction of a new Top Level Domain is usually divided into the following phases:
- General availability
The Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) is the most important mechanism for protecting trademark rights in ICANN’s program for new gTLDs. It is a centralized database of verified brands that is linked to each new Top Level Domain.Read more about TMCH: www.brandshelter.com/de/tmch-registrierung
A top level domain, abridged TLD, is the last section of a domain and can be found to the right of the dot. Our domain brandshelter.com ends, for example, with the TLD .com. The TLD represents the highest level of name resolution.
A URL redirect sends a user from one URL to another. There are various reasons for a redirect, such as changing the company name or merging two websites. Forwarding of so-called “typosquatting domains”, for example, can also be used for phishing attempts or redirection to competitor sites.
The term “typosquatting” refers to a form of cybersquatting, based on the fact that a term is typed incorrectly into the web browser and a so-called “typo domain” is called up. This typosquatting websites usually contain competing offers, inappropriate advertising or other unwanted content.
The Uniform Rapid Suspension (URS) and the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) procedures are options to resolve domain disputes in trademark infringement cases.
URL is the abbreviation for Uniform Resource Locator and is a standard for calling certain content, for example websites. Via the URL brandshelter.com you reach our website.
A web interface is an interface to a system that can be accessed via Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). This can be a graphical user interface (GUI), through which a user is connected to the system using a web browser, or a web service with which the system provides data to other systems.
Web space is a storage space provided on a server. Files stored there can be permanently be accessed via the Internet. Users can book this online memory space through internet service providers to store documents, data, or websites. The provision of storage space on the Internet is called webhosting.
The Whois ia a protocol that provides information such as company name, telephone and fax number, complete address and e-mail address to identify the domain owner. These data can be obtained through a Whois query at the apppropriate registry.
The domain registrar can set out in his general terms and conditions that he can use, transfer or renew a domain after it has expired and therefore does not have to release the domain for renewed registration. He thus holds the domain back (withhold).
The zone stands in the Domain Name System (DNS) for the part of the domain tree for which a name server is responsible. The primary name server manages the zone, while a mirroring to multiple secondary name servers should increase availability in case of server failures.